This is a list of stock market crashes and bear markets.


Name Dates Country Causes Ref
Kipper und Wipper 01623-01-011623 23x15px Financial crisis during the start of the Thirty Years' War (1621-1623) .[1]
Tulip mania Bubble 01637-01-011637 23x15px A bubble (1633-37) in Netherlands during which contracts for bulbs of tulips reached extraordinarily high prices, and suddenly collapsed [2]
The Mississippi Bubble 01720-01-011720 23x15px Banque Royale by John Law stopped payments of its note in exchange for specie and as result caused economic collapse in France.
South Sea Bubble of 1720 01720-01-011720 23x15px Affected early European stock markets, during early days of chartered joint stock companies
Bengal Bubble of 1769 01769-01-011769 23x15px Primarily caused by the British East India Company, whose shares fell from £276 in December 1768 to £122 in 1784
Panic of 1796–1797 01796-01-011796 File:Flag placeholder.svg
Panic of 1819 01819-01-011819 23x15px
Panic of 1837 01837-05-1010 May 1837 23x15px
Panic of 1847 01847-01-011847 23x15px
Panic of 1857 01857-01-011857 23x15px
Black Friday 01869-09-2424 Sep 1869 23x15px
Panic of 1873 01873-05-099 May 1873 Initiated the Long Depression in the United States and much of Europe
Paris Bourse crash of 1882 01882-01-1919 Jan 1882 23x15px
Panic of 1884 01884-01-011884
Encilhamento 01890-01-011890 23x15px Lasting 3 years, 1890-1893, a Boom and bust process that boomed in late 1880s and burst on early 1890s, causing a collapse in the Brazilian economy and aggravating an already unstable political situation. [3][4][5][6]
Panic of 1893 01893-01-011893 23x15px
Panic of 1896 01896-01-011896 23x15px
Panic of 1901 01901-05-1717 May 1901 23x15px Lasting 3 years, the market was spooked by the assassination of President McKinley in 1901, coupled with a severe drought later the same year.
Panic of 1907 01907-10-01 Oct 1907 23x15px Lasting over a year, markets took fright after U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt had threatened to rein in the monopolies that flourished in various industrial sectors, notably railways.
Wall Street Crash of 1929 01929-10-2424 Oct 1929 23x15px Lasting over 4 years, the bursting of the speculative bubble in shares led to further selling as people who had borrowed money to buy shares had to cash them in, when their loans were called in. Also called the Great Crash or the Wall Street Crash, leading to the Great Depression.
Recession of 1937–1938 (U.S.) 01937-01-011937 23x15px Lasting around a year, this share price fall was triggered by an economic recession within the Great Depression and doubts about the effectiveness of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal policy.
1971 Brazilian Markets Crash 01971-07-01 July 1971 23x15px Lasting through the 1970s and early-1980s, this was the end of a boom that started in 1969, compounded by the 1970s energy crisis coupled with early 1980s Latin American debt crisis. [7][8][9]
1973–1974 stock market crash 01973-01-01 Jan 1973 23x15px Lasting 23 months, dramatic rise in oil prices, the miners' strike and the downfall of the Heath government.
Silver Thursday 01980-03-2727 March 1980 Silver price crash
Souk Al-Manakh stock market crash 01982-08-01 Aug 1982 23x15px
Black Monday 01987-10-1919 Oct 1987 23x15px
Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange collapse 01989-06-01 June 1989 23x15px Rio Stock Exchange Crash, due its weak internal controls and absence of credit discipline, that led to its collapse, and of which it never recovered [10][11][12]
Friday the 13th mini-crash 01989-10-1313 Oct 1989 23x15px Failed leveraged buyout of United Airlines causes crash
Japanese asset price bubble 01991-01-011991 23x15px Lasting approximately twenty years, through at least the end of 2011, share and property price bubble bursts and turns into a long deflationary recession. Some of the key economic events during the collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble include the 1997 Asian financial crisis and the Dot-com bubble. In addition, more recent economic events, such as the late-2000s financial crisis and August 2011 stock markets fall have prolonged this period.
Black Wednesday 01992-09-1616 Sep 1992 The Conservative government was forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) after they were unable to keep sterling above its agreed lower limit.
1997 Asian financial crisis 01997-07-022 July 1997 Investors deserted emerging Asian shares, including an overheated Hong Kong stock market. Crashes occur in Thailand, Indonesia, South Korea, Philippines, and elsewhere, reaching a climax in the October 27, 1997 mini-crash.
October 27, 1997 mini-crash 01997-10-2727 Oct 1997 Global stock market crash that was caused by an economic crisis in Asia. The points loss that the Dow Jones Industrial Average suffered on this day still ranks as the seventh biggest point loss in its 114-year existence.
1998 Russian financial crisis 01998-08-1717 Aug 1998 23x15px The Russian government devalues the ruble, defaults on domestic debt, and declares a moratorium on payment to foreign creditors.
Dot-com bubble 02000-03-1010 March 2000 23x15px Collapse of a technology bubble, world economic effects arising from the September 11 attacks and the stock market downturn of 2002.
Economic effects arising from the September 11 attacks 02001-09-1111 Sep 2001 The September 11 attacks caused global stock markets to drop sharply. The attacks themselves caused approximately $40 billion in insurance losses, making it one of the largest insured events ever.
Stock market downturn of 2002 02002-10-099 Oct 2002 Downturn in stock prices during 2002 in stock exchanges across the United States, Canada, Asia, and Europe. After recovering from lows reached following the September 11 attacks, indices slid steadily starting in March 2002, with dramatic declines in July and September leading to lows last reached in 1997 and 1998.
Chinese stock bubble of 2007 02007-02-2727 Feb 2007 23x15px The SSE Composite Index of the Shanghai Stock Exchange tumbles 9% from unexpected selloffs, the largest drop in 10 years, triggering major drops in worldwide stock markets. [13][14][15]
United States bear market of 2007–2009 02007-10-1111 Oct 2007 23x15px Till June 2009, the Dow Jones Industrial Average, Nasdaq Composite and S&P 500 all experienced declines of greater than 20% from their peaks in late 2007. [16][17]
Late-2000s financial crisis 02008-09-1616 Sep 2008 23x15px On September 16, 2008, failures of large financial institutions in the United States, due primarily to exposure of securities of packaged subprime loans and credit default swaps issued to insure these loans and their issuers, rapidly devolved into a global crisis resulting in a number of bank failures in Europe and sharp reductions in the value of equities (stock) and commodities worldwide. The failure of banks in Iceland resulted in a devaluation of the Icelandic króna and threatened the government with bankruptcy. Iceland was able to secure an emergency loan from the IMF in November. Later on, U.S. President George W. Bush signs the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act into law, creating a Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) to purchase failing bank assets. [18][19]
2009 Dubai debt standstill November 27, 2009 23x15px Dubai requests a debt deferment following its massive renovation and development projects, as well as the late-2000s recession. The announcement causes global stock markets to drop. [20]
European sovereign debt crisis 02010-04-2727 April 2010 23x15px Standard & Poor's downgrades Greece's sovereign credit rating to junk four days after the activation of a 45-billion EUIMF bailout, triggering the decline of stock markets worldwide and of the Euro's value, and furthering a European sovereign debt crisis. [21][22][23]
2010 Flash Crash 02010-05-066 May 2010 23x15px The Dow Jones Industrial Average suffers its worst intra-day point loss, dropping nearly 1,000 points before partially recovering. [24]
August 2011 stock markets fall 02011-08-01 Aug 2011 Stock markets around the world plummet during late July and early August, and are volatile for the rest of the year.

See alsoEdit


  1. "“Kipper und Wipper”: Rogue Traders, Rogue Princes, Rogue Bishops and the German Financial Meltdown of 1621-23" by Mike Dash, Smithsonian, March 29, 2012
  2. Dash, Mike "Tulipomania: The Story of the World's Most Coveted Flower & the Extraordinary Passions It Aroused" 2001
  3. James D. Henderson, Helen Delpar & Maurice P. Brungardt "A Reference Guide to Latin American History" Richard Weldon Editor - M.E.Sharpe Inc. 2000, ISBN I563247445 page 172, 2nd column, "1890" (2nd paragraph)
  4. Jeffrey D. Needell; "A Tropical Belle Epoque: Elite Culture and Society in Turn-of-the-Century" Cambridge University Press 1987 Pages 10 & 12
  5. Gail D. Triner; "Banking and economic development: Brazil, 1889–1930" Palgrave™ 2000 ISBN 0-312-23399-X Pages 44–74
  6. Viscount of Taunay; "O Encilhamento; scenas contemporaneas da Bolsa do Rio de Janeiro em 1890, 1891 e 1892" (Portuguese)Script error ("The Encilhamento: contemporary scenes of Rio Stock Exchange in 1890, 1891 & 1892") Editora Melhoramentos, Rio 1893
  7. Gary Previts, Peter Walton & Peter Wolnizer "A Global History of Accounting, Financial Reporting And Public Policy; Americas - Volume 14B" The University of Sydney/The Accounting Foundation, Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2011 ISBN 9780857248114 Page 41, from the last paragraph
  8. Detailed | PDF Academic work about the subject (Portuguese)Script error UNICAMP june 2007
  9. Marta Barcellos & Simone Azevedo; "Histórias do Mercado de Capitais no Brasil" ("Histories of Financial Markets in Brazil") (Portuguese)Script error Campus Elsevier Brazil 2011 ISBN 85-352-3994-4 Introduction and Chapter 4
  10. Markham, Jeffrey W. "A Financial History of the United States; Volume III (1970-2001)" M.E.Sharpe 2002 ISBN 0765607301 page 147, from last paragraph
  11. | Article about the decline of Rio Stock Exchange. Last 3 paragraphs are about the 1989 crash
  12. Barcellos & Azevedo 2011, Pages 141-142; 149 to 151, and 154
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